The After-Effects of The Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki


On August 6, 1945, an American B-29 bomber named the Enola Gay left the island of Tinian for Hiroshima, Japan. This section recounts the first atomic bombing.

Hiroshima was chosen as the primary target since it had remained largely untouched by bombing raids, and the bomb’s effects could be clearly measured. While President Truman had hoped for a purely military target, some advisers believed that bombing an urban area might break the fighting will of the Japanese people. Hiroshima was a major port and a military headquarters, and therefore a strategic target. Also, visual bombing, rather than radar, would be used so that photographs of the damage could be taken. Since Hiroshima had not been seriously harmed by bombing raids, these photographs could present a fairly clear picture of the bomb’s damage.

A T-shaped bridge at the junction of the Honkawa and Motoyasu rivers near downtown Hiroshima was the target. At 8:15 a.m., Little Boy exploded, instantly killing 80,000 to 140,000 people and seriously injuring 100,000 more. The bomb exploded some 1,900 feet above the center of the city, over Shima Surgical Hospital, some 70 yards southeast of the Industrial Promotional Hall (now known as the Atomic Bomb Dome). Crewmembers of the Enola Gay saw a column of smoke rising fast and intense fires springing up. The burst temperature was estimated to reach over a million degrees Celsius, which ignited the surrounding air, forming a fireball some 840 feet in diameter. Eyewitnesses more than 5 miles away said its brightness exceeded the sun tenfold.

In less than one second, the fireball had expanded to 900 feet. The blast wave shattered windows for a distance of ten miles and was felt as far away as 37 miles. Over two-thirds of Hiroshima’s buildings were demolished. The hundreds of fires, ignited by the thermal pulse, combined to produce a firestorm that had incinerated everything within about 4.4 miles of ground zero.

To the crew of the Enola Gay, Hiroshima had disappeared under a thick, churning foam of flames and smoke. The co-pilot, Captain Robert Lewis, commented, “My God, what have we done?”

About 30 minutes after the explosion, a heavy rain began falling in areas to the northwest of the city. This “black rain” was full of dirt, dust, soot and highly radioactive particles that were sucked up into the air at the time of the explosion and during the fire. It caused contamination even in areas that were remote from the explosion.

Radio stations went off the air, and the main line telegraph had stopped working just north of Hiroshima. Chaotic reports of a horrific explosion came from several railway stops close to the city and were transmitted to the Headquarters of the Japanese General Staff. Military headquarters personnel tried to contact the Army Control Station in Hiroshima and were met with complete silence. The Japanese were puzzled. They knew that no large enemy raid could have occurred, and no sizeable store of explosives was in Hiroshima at that time, yet terrible rumors were starting.

A young officer of the Japanese General Staff was instructed to fly immediately to Hiroshima, to land, survey the damage and return to Tokyo with reliable information for the staff. Headquarters doubted that anything serious had occurred, but the rumors were building. When the staff officer in his plane was nearly 100 miles (160 km) from Hiroshima, he and his pilot noticed a huge cloud of smoke from the bomb. In the bright afternoon, the remains of Hiroshima were burning.

The plane soon reached the city and circled it. A great scar on the land was still burning, covered by a heavy cloud of smoke. They landed south of Hiroshima, and the staff officer immediately began to organize relief measures, after reporting to Tokyo.


On August 9, 1945, another American B-29 bomber, Bock’s Car, left Tinian carrying Fat Man, a plutonium implosion-type bomb. The primary target was the Kokura Arsenal, but upon reaching the target, they found that it was covered by a heavy ground haze and smoke. This section recounts the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan.

Like Hiroshima, the immediate aftermath in Nagasaki was a nightmare. More than forty percent of the city was destroyed. Major hospitals had been utterly flattened and care for the injured was impossible. Schools, churches, and homes had simply disappeared. Transportation was impossible.

Many of the survivors—Hibakusha—have recorded their memories of those days.

Fujie Urata Matsumoto, relates this scene: “The pumpkin field in front of the house was blown clean. Nothing was left of the whole thick crop, except that in place of the pumpkins there was a woman’s head. I looked at the face to see if I knew her. It was a woman of about forty. She must have been from another part of town – I had never seen her around here. A gold tooth gleamed in the wide-open mouth. A handful of singed hair hung down from the left temple over her cheek, dangling in her mouth. Her eyelids were drawn up, showing black holes where the eyes had been burned out…She had probably looked square into the flash and gotten her eyeballs burned.”

Kayano Nagai remembers “I saw the atom bomb. I was four then. I remember the cicadas chirping. The atom bomb was the last thing that happened in the war and no more bad things have happened since then, but I don’t have my Mummy any more. So even if it isn’t bad any more, I’m not happy.”

Two years after the bombing plants growing at ground zero presaged the frightening genetic aberrations in humans that were to come: sesame stalks produced 33 percent more seeds but 90 percent of them were sterile. For decades abnormally high amounts of cancer, birth defects, and tumors haunted victims.

Both Hiroshima and Nagasaki have memorialized the events of August, 1945 with museums, sculpture, peace ceremonies, and parks. They want no one to forget.

The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum states, “The question of how to inform young people about the horror of war, the threat of nuclear weapons and the importance of the peace is therefore a matter of passing concern. The citizens of Nagasaki pray that this miserable experience will never be repeated on Earth. We also consider it our duty to ensure that the experience is not forgotten but passed on intact to future generations.

It is imperative that we join hands with all peace-loving people around the world and strive together for the realization of lasting world peace.”

Today, Nagasaki is a busy, industrial city with a population of almost 500,000. The Mitsubishi plant, so complete

Infrastructure Damage:

Hiroshima was in ruins. The T-bridge’s barriers had been knocked awry; utility poles stood at odd angles, and familiar landmarks were gone or unrecognizable. Buildings—even strong modern structures—had suffered significant damage, some pushed off their foundations, some gutted by fire, others utterly destroyed. Many steel and concrete buildings appeared intact at first glance, but their outer walls hid internal damage due to the downward pressure of the air burst. Cemeteries were uprooted, and churches had become rubble.

Psychological Damage:

In the late 1950’s, psychologists in Hiroshima and Nagasaki reported increased complaints among survivors of neurotic symptoms, including general fatigue, amnesia, and lack of concentration…After surveys were given to survivors. Additional symptoms included, “…recalling the occurrence and becoming upset, experiencing an increased sense of unresponsiveness and immobility, and feeling guilt and discouragement”
PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) symptoms include: nightmares, flashbacks, intense anxiety, feeling numb, anger and irritability, insomnia, having trouble concentrating, depression, suicidal thoughts

Physical Damage:

The survivors, known as hibakusha, sought relief from their injuries. However, 90 percent of all medical personnel were killed or disabled, and the remaining medical supplies quickly ran out. Many survivors began to notice the effects of exposure to the bomb’s radiation. Their symptoms ranged from nausea, bleeding and loss of hair, to death. Flash burns, a susceptibility to leukemia, cataracts and malignant tumors were some of the other effects.

-Cancer, especially leukemia and lymphoma
–Small brain size
–Mental retardation
–Lower IQ
–Delayed development
–Spinal Bifida
–Cleft palate
–Also, NOT in babies (ie. those already alive when the bomb was dropped): Horrible scarring; increase in breast cancer in women and men; thyroid problems; hair loss; diarrhea.

Radiation Effects:

Hair loss caused by exposure to radiation.

Hair Loss
This soldier is severely burned from the thermal radiation.
Severe Thermal Burns
Severe keloids, or scarring, caused by thermal radiation.
Severe Keloids
Thermal Burns:
The burns are in a pattern corresponding to the dark portions of the kimono she was wearing at the time of the explosion.
Thermal Burns
There have also been many birth defect reports after the drop of the bomb. Not only did it destroy everything that was there at the time it was dropped, but the future life to come from there as well.
  • Radiation exposure might have caused 421 excess cancers. Of the 17 types of cancers considered, survivors suffered excesses in 16
  • Studies on 1600 children who were irradiated while they were in their mother’s womb during the atomic bomb explosions in the two cities revealed that 30 of them suffered clinically severe mental retardation.
  • Studies of children born to mothers who received whole-body radiation doses of between 50 and 100 rad following the Japanese atomic bombing showed that the children had an increased risk for small brain size and mental retardation. This was especially true for those women who were eight to 15 weeks pregnant at the time of exposure. Compared with non-exposed children, children exposed to whole-body radiation doses during this period before birth had lower intelligence test scores and performed less well in school.
  • Some estimates state up to 200,000 had died by 1950, due to cancer and other long-term effects. From 1950 to 1990, roughly 9% of the cancer and leukemia deaths among bomb survivors was due to radiation from the bomb.

Meet the bombs:

1. Little Boy:

LIttle Boy Bomb awaiting to be loaded into the Enola Gay

Length: 120.0 inches (10 feet / 3.0 meters)
Diameter: 28.0 inches (71.1 cm)
Weight: 9,700 lbs (4,400 kg)
Yield: 15 kiltons (+/- 20%)
The Little Boy bomb in the bomb pit, ready for loading into the Enola Gay.

In essence, the Little Boy design consisted of a gun that fired one mass of uranium 235 at another mass of uranium 235, thus creating a supercritical mass. A crucial requirement was that the pieces be brought together in a time shorter than the time between spontaneous fissions. Once the two pieces of uranium are brought together, the initiator introduces a burst of neutrons and the chain reaction begins, continuing until the energy released becomes so great that the bomb simply blows itself apart.

2. Fat Man:

The rapid spontaneous fission rate of plutonium 239 necessitated that a different type of bomb be designed. A gun-type bomb would not be fast enough to work. Before the bomb could be assembled, a few stray neutrons would have been emitted, and these would start a premature chain reaction­leading to a great reduction in the energy released.

Seth Neddermeyer, a scientist at Los Alamos, developed the idea of using explosive charges to compress a sphere of plutonium very rapidly to a density sufficient to make it go critical and produce a nuclear explosion.

Fat Man


Length: 128.375 inches (10 feet 8 inches / 3.25 meters)
Diameter: 60.25 inches (5 feet / 1.5 meters)
Weight: 10,265 lbs (4,656 kg)
Yield: 21 kilotons (+/- 10%)

About TheTaoOfD
Truth Seeker. Truth Spreader.

52 Responses to The After-Effects of The Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki

  1. Anonymous says:

    if you think Hiroshima was a bad thing than why don’t you go up to a US WWII vet, look him right in the eyes and say, “I wish you would have died.” Because Japan was not going to surrender all they wanted was a glorious death were they could KILL as many Americans as possible nothing else so yeah we used a atomic bomb to save over 5 million lives. The total estimated amount of dead if we were to invade Tokyo was over 1 million and over 4 million wounded. So yeah go tell one of them that you wish they were dead.

  2. GEB says:

    Clearly, anyone who says, “Don’t mess with the USA” hasn’t seen the cataclysmic damage unleashed upon the world over warfare for economic, oligarchic or empirical dominance. Every empire in history has fallen, and the world will know full-scale warfare again if individuals in power do not hearken to the voices of history. However, this time the casualties could potentially be too great to quantify in any scale.

  3. Anonymous says:

    Thanks, this really helped me on my sucky ass report! The information was easy to understand and i didn’t have to google something else to see what another thing meant. Thanks!

  4. Anonymous says:

    Thanks it help me a lot

  5. Anonymous says:

    so true my firiend

  6. Monique says:

    The way I see it, Japan picked a fight with the US by bombing Pearl harbor without them knowing about it which then pissess off US & then US retaliates by sending mini bomb attacks on Japan but to no avail of Japan surrendering. So, then uh….the US threats Japan even bigger telling them to surrender now or blah blah….in a way like, ‘you’re gonna regret ever having to mess with us’, BLAH & so, the US comes up with a another bombing plan which is to ‘nuke’ one of Japan’s cities (Hiroshima) but before doing that, the US rained down ‘warning leaflets’ of the impending doom, telling Japanese locals to flee & all……..& *BOOM!* death tolls soars, buildings destroyed & STILL Japan refuse to surrender!! (Which I cannot believe this, I mean…… The US just dropped a DEADY, NUCLEAR WEAPON on one of your cities, KILLING THOUSANDS INSTANTLY & you STILL refuse to surrender?!?!?! WHAT—the fuck ?!??!?!?!? What a pride, man. DAMN.) Ya, so, seems that’s nor enough, 3 days after the first nuke attack, US sends another on Nagasaki & THEN that’s when you Japan folk FINALLY surrendered!! Sigh….
    I DO NOT support neither US nor Japan concerning their military actions & all but the way they fought each other just seems so incredibly childish to me….. & the deaths of innocent thousands of people (US + Japan) were in VAIN. Though I also read that other reasond US nuked Japan was in order to end WW2 as fast as possible. But ANYWAY, nuclear weapons should NEVER be used again. Actually, WAR should NEVER be the answer to solving national problems, NEVER EVER. for the sake of humanity……

    • Anonymous says:

      so all you can do is get defensive rather than actually learn an important lesson in history? oh ok, go ‘merica

    • Anonymous says:

      Killing people for whatever reason is wrong. But yeah go America, lets justify the killing of many innocent people over and over again.

    • Anonymous says:

      wow that is so typical of you Americans , you get hit and have to hit back harder not only killing hundreds of thousands of inoccent civilians
      that had no say in the matter as the were run by a dictator/empire and probably didn’t want a war in the first place, then you blame Japan for not surrendering quick enough (probably because they were too busy helping the dead and the injured).
      There is no way anyone can justify the use of an atomic bomb and anyone who takes pride in this deserves to be hit with an a-bomb just to see what its like.

      • Anonymous says:

        What America did was wrong and cannot be justified but just the same as you said it was Japans leaders that made all their bad decisions America’s president made that ultimate decision going against those that advised him not to bomb Hiroshima so how could you blame “Americans”? plus don’t act like Japan did nothing wrong during that war

      • Anonymous says:

        I would just like to say that not all Americans agreed with the bombing and quite a few STILL don’t agree that it was the right thing to do.

    • Anonymous says:

      War should never be the answer, i get if they dropped the bomb on like a military base or some thing but, a random town that pretty has nothing to do with war is just like, WHY?

  7. Pingback: sugar daddy dating

  8. Anonymous says:

    I found your article very comprehensive and easy to follow–learned a lot about the Hiroshima and Nagasaki incident from this page. Thank you for this information.

  9. Anonymous says:

    what a terrible disaster . let’s take a oath to never repeat such a crime again and hide humanity into clouds of radioactive radiation.

  10. jsmithkansas says:

    I have faith in humanity that we can, if we want it badly enough, do the things that make for peace. I do not see how these atrocities can make the world a better place for all. Rather, they agitate the enemy and make them even worse. This kind of behavior is a sin against all the best of humanity.

  11. LHart says:

    This info really helped me for my debate at school!!!

  12. azika says:

    Fuck that the US

  13. Joseph says:

    Uh.. what? Japan bombed Pearl Harbor without any US provocation? Dude! Where are you getting your history from? Michael Bay? US had an oil embargo on Japan so Japan couldn’t take US’s economic interest in S.E Asia.

    And saying that the civilians deserve what they got because their gov’t was power and profit hungry… then we get up in arms about 9/11…

    US cuts off oil to Japan so US can protect their interests (but it is disguised as protecting democracy). Japan attacks Pearl Harbor a military site (cowards!!! They shot down Ben Affleck!!! He so dreamy.), US declares war and say we will level two major cities and wipe off civilians and affect them for generations (hey, it is justified.. whats the big deal, they started it…. Oh we cut off their oil supply so we can control SE Asia? Well~~ I don’t know about that ha! Professor Bay never said annyytthiingg about that~~~ ).

    US sneak drone-bombs the cities in the middle east kills civilians in the process to protect their economic interests in the guise of democracy (hey, we need our oil.. its the right thing to do). Then “terrorists” comes and plane bombs NYC and other places (cowards!!! How dare they!.. Hiro.. Naga wha? Well… that was different because we were in a war .. oh we were in a war with terrorist too? Hmm.. well.. Hiro something and Nagasuckit were.. PEARL~~HARBOR!!!!! LALALLALAL.

  14. Historian says:

    We have to look at what the Japanese first did. They killed many people by bombing Pearl Harbour, without any warning or reason. They treated the people in China, Burma, Singapore, Korea and the Philippines so much worse than this. In the infamous Rape of Nanking, Japanese soldiers raped women and girls in front of their husbands and fathers, before killing men, women and children alike. In Singapore, the Japanese Kempeitai tortured and killed innocent people to no end. They massacred 100,000 Chinese men just because the Japanese bore so much hatred towards China. They broke peoples’ limbs, paraded victims’ severed heads, gave you electric shock, rip your fingernails right off your fingers, and hung you upside down while they beated and beated you with a metal rod. Those were the atrocities of the Japanese. They would have continued their brutalities had the US not bombed them. Always look at an event from both perspectives.

    • LittleJoker says:

      Yet look at things from the Japanese perspectives. They did not want the World War, all they wanted was resources, which they could gain and had to gain, in order to continue expanding and growing. The Meiji Restoration had allowed the Japanese to grow and become an equal among the high and mighty Western powers, and to continue growing, they needed resources, which they lacked, and the Western forces weren’t helping either. They grew increasingly worried about Japan’s growing economic, military, and industrial powers, and did their best to curb her growth, through the Naval Conference. That wasn’t fair either. Japan could only gain these resources through the invasion of China, which she did. The bombing of Pearl Harbor was a necessity, since the USA was threatening to take military action, and in order to buy time, US military influence had to be removed from South East Asia. Britain and USA then declared war upon Japan, starting both the Pacific War and WW II. As for the atrocities committed by the Japanese, look at what the Chinese, Americans, British and other powers did to them in turn. Innocent Japanese were slaughtered, butchered and tortured in neutral countries, for one reason. They were Japanese. After the war, hundreds of thousands of Japanese were imprisoned, tortured, and killed in turn as revenge. Up till today, the death count of the Japanese POWs still hasn’t been clearly sorted out, but I can assure you, other countries committed their own fair share of crimes as well. Combine the atrocities the Western powers did to the Japanese captives, and other Axis forces troops, add on to the hundreds of thousands the US slaughtered with the atomic bombs, the crimes the Japanese committed may not seem that terrible after all. The Western forces may not have been that open about it too, after all, the victors are the ones who write the histories. Don’t you dare say the Japanese were entirely at fault. Their prisons and the conditions they received were much much worse than anything their captives could have received, though with the exception of the Death Railway. Look at an event from both perspectives, but do not pass judgments, since there’s always two sides to the coin.

      • BigJoker says:

        Well, have you heard of the Japanese unit 731? It’s a biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army. They took innocent women, children and men from China, Russia, South East Asia & other colonies. They did human experimentation. Ever heard of vivisection? They sliced open the patients’ bodies (they were alive and not under any anesthesia) and removed their organs to study the effects of diseases on the human body. These were conducted while the patients were alive because it was feared that the decomposition process would affect the results. They did even did it on infants and elderly. They amputated their limbs to study blood loss. Those limbs that were removed were sometimes re-attached to the opposite sides of the body. Some prisoners had their stomachs surgically removed and the esophagus reattached to the intestines. Parts of the brain, lungs, liver, etc. were removed from some prisoners. LET ME REPEAT, ALL WHILE THEY WERE ALIVE AND NOT UNDER ANESTHESIA.

        They injected germs into the patients so that they could study the effects of that disease. They RAPED the men and women to infect them with syphilis and gonorrhea. Human targets were used to test grenades positioned at various distances and in different positions. Flame throwers were tested on humans. Humans were tied and used as targets to test germ-releasing bombs, chemical weapons, and explosive bombs.

        In other tests, subjects were deprived of food and water to determine the length of time until death; placed into high-pressure chambers until death; experimented upon to determine the relationship between temperature, burns, and human survival; placed into centrifuges and spun until death; injected with animal blood; exposed to lethal doses of x-rays; subjected to various chemical weapons inside gas chambers; injected with sea water to determine if it could be a substitute for saline; and burned or prematurely BURIED ALIVE.


        • bob says:

          well look at all these things that america did in the past:they took slaves and tortured them and sold them. and the wounded knee massacre, many native americans died.also america was selling native american land. don’t you remember that the americans kicked out the japanese from their homes? they made them leave within a week. and in ww2 the 442 was japanese, they got the most awards and medals in us history.

          • Anonymous says:

            I would joke here, but this is hardly a laughing matter. The atrocities listed above is much worse than ANYTHING the Americans ever did. EVER. Worse than anything any nation has ever done to their civilians, enemies, POWS, etc. I’d rather be sold and abused any day than burned, buried alive, raped, have my family raped, be tested with explosives, radiation or anything. I’d die 1,000,000 times rather than that.

    • Anonymous says:

      the people that the japanese killed were working on a naval base in Hawaii the people we killed in Hiroshima were innocent people who were not responsible whatsoever for the bombing of Hiroshima

  15. Anonymous says:

    Гореть в аду тем нелюдям, кто это сделал.

  16. Prakash Kumar says:

    What the democratic USA did to Vietnam and Iraq is also a cause of sadness. The brutal massacre of civilians in Hiroshima and Nagashaki is condemnable on all counts. Please look at the other side of the coin. It is surprising that the Japanese do not think of doing any harm to the USA now.

    • John Abbott says:

      Japan started this by declaring war on the US by the sneak attack bombing of Pearl Harbor. one of my mother’s friend’s brother went down on the bombing of the Arizona and his body has never been recovered, The Japanese Govt was given the choice of surrender but because of their stiff necked pride in their murderous rampage, they refused surrender thereby sentencing their citizens to these bombings. Ask the Japanese what apology and what restitution they have made to the Koreans they took as slave labor and the females they pressed into sexual slavery. Ask the Manchurians what they think of the Japanese cowards. Kumar, study history before you show off your ignorance to the world shaming your family in the process. My father fought the battle of Okinawa in the 6th Marine at the age of 16 yrs old and survived. My older brother died in South Viet Nam .Probably the bravest and most manly thing you ever did Kumar was to stone some innocent school girl (after you raped and sodomized her) because your brother ogled her while she walked home from school.
      People like you are not fit to lick the combat boots of the lowest person in my family.

    • Anonymous says:

      If they did harm the USA again without provocation as they did in Pearl Harbor the US would wipe Japan off the face of the earth with a hydrogen bomb 100 million times more powerful than the antquadaded atomic bombs that were initally used because Japan was too arrogant to surrender when we offered them the chance.The US has bombs that could destroy the whole earth in seconds.Dont mess with the USA.

      • Really says:

        Please, read some history and go back to eating your burgers and waving your flags with your ignorant responses. That is not a humane response, killing people for little provocation. But, maybe your point should be taken into account, and the US should blow up Japan, while destroying the entire Earth in seconds. I’m glad you’re in a position of no power, because we could all be dead right now with thinking like that.

    • proud veteran says:

      Why don’t you pick up a history book instead of spewing anti-American crap all over the internet? I think as a country, we the U.S. should take care of our own and let rest of this crappy world defend your own damned selves. We have lost far too many lives defending dumpy countries who in the end run their mouths about the “great satan”, the U.S. However when the next hitler comes along don’t come crying to us, because we have two words for you…FU*K ALL OF YOU!..

  17. Katrina says:

    It never ceases to sicken me the atrocities we humans are capable of inflicting on each other. Thanks for reminding us all, to first Give Peace a Chance

  18. Neoslotty says:

    The real sadness is what Imperial Japan did to nations like China, Burma, Singapore, Korea and the Philippines. The real sadness is the fanatical nature of the Japanese people who would have fought to the last woman/child in defense of their emperor. On top of that a brutal military that aligned themselves with Hitler and is responsible for tens of millions of deaths in their desire for world-wide domination.
    Pres Truman made the right decision and revisionist historians ain’t gonna change my mind

  19. omegetymon says:

    Outstanding post Sir! I live close to the home that Gen. Paul Tibbets, ( who passed in 2007.), grew up in here in COLUMBUS, OHIO. Isn’t that ironic? “OHIO” is part of the formal greeting when meeting in the morning, (“Ohayou gozaimasu”/ OHIO go-zeye-mus). Even more peculiar is that Honda Motors(built its FIRST U.S. plant in Marysville, Ohio. It’s beyond my mind but we are a part of that history.

  20. That is such a sad sad piece of our history, I had trouble reading it. The line that says ‘what have we done’ says it all.
    Let’s hope this never happens again.

    • bob says:

      i agree it is a sad event

      • neoslotty says:

        Hiroshima or Perl Harbor? How about the rape of Nan King where the children were given plague laced blankets? What about the Bataan death march or the torturing of our POW’s? How about the fact the the Japanese aligned themselves with the Nazis?

  21. James Pailly says:

    I have a lot of faith in humanity. I want to believe we are good people. This makes it hard, but we can at least be thankful that it never happened again and pray that it never will.

    Articles like this one will, I think, protect us from ourselves. We need to be reminded of what we’re capable of, see the ugly truth, so that we know not to repeat our mistakes.

    Thank you for this post.

    • Anonymous says:

      It is now 2013 and my 8 year old son is asking about this horror. I tell him to do no harm to others. Some sons listen some sons don’t…

  22. Thank you for putting this out here so that we can bear witness to one of the worst ways we have damaged the collective unconscious of this world.
    We hide from our actions and justify our history.

Leave a Comment...